Climate policy and regulation toolbox

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Economic sectors and associated low-carbon policy tools:

ELECTRICITY GENERATION

  • carbon pricing (carbon taxes / cap and trade systems)
  • carbon pollution standards
  • climate bond support
  • electricity utility rate / price guarantees
  • feed-in tariffs
  • loan guarantees for renewable power generation projects
  • net metering
  • performance standards
  • R&D investment
  • renewable portfolio standards
  • streamlined regulations for grid access and permits for private power generation
  • streamlined building codes for solar rooftop installations

BUILDINGS

  • carbon offset programs
  • climate bond support
  • energy efficiency standards and codes
    (lighting, insulation, HVAC, refrigerators, hot water)
  • streamlined regulations for grid access and permits for private power generation
  • streamlined building codes for solar rooftop installations
  • tax relief: exemptions, credits, rebates, accelerated cost allowances

INDUSTRY

  • carbon offset programs
  • carbon pollution standards
  • carbon price (carbon taxes / cap and trade)
  • landfill gas capture regulations and standards
  • technology R&D, funds and investment

TRANSPORTATION

  • biofuel grants, tax breaks, R&D investment, especially for for aircraft
  • biofuel quotas
  • electric vehicle purchase tax exemptions and subsidies
  • fuel efficiency standards
  • low carbon fuel standards
  • market creation funding for biofuels
  • retail electricity and charging station regulations and standards

LAND USE

  • low impact agricultural policies and practices
  • grasslands conservation and management
  • reforestation programs
  • soil conservation and management

ECONOMY WIDE

  • carbon offset programs and standards
  • carbon fee and dividend systems
  • climate bond support
  • emission reduction grants
  • fossil fuel subsidy removal
  • infrastructure grants
  • loan guarantees for low carbon projects
  • promoting behaviour change
  • promoting best available technologies (BAT)
  • R&D grants
  • tax relief: exemptions, credits, rebates, accelerated cost allowances
  • power efficiency standards for lighting, appliances and electronic devices
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WORLDWIDE POLICY DATABASE
For a comprehensive archive of current legislative tools used to address climate change visit the International Energy Agency’s policy database.